What should we consider when we want to establish a cherry orchard?
Like cherry, cherry is a species that needs much light to grow. Thus, farmers who wish to start cherry orchards can successfully cultivate this fruit tree in hilly areas , plateaus or slopes with gradients of up to 12-15% , but also in lower flat areas . Avoid planting instead on the narrow valleys between hills or slopes which faces north or northwest.
For cherry it is generally recommended two culture systems. The classic one – with trees grafted on with higher force, with planting distances indicative of 5 m (500 trees / ha) , and intensive culture – with trees grafted on force.
Although it appears that cherry is a species with greater resistance to moisture deficit in the soil, a performant culture of cherries requires irrigation system that is installed when planting trees and hail system are recommended for areas where the risk of hail has a bigger frequency. Plantation of the cherries is preferable to make in the fall after leaf fall and spring planting is done only when it was impossible to plant in the fall. Planting material must come from certified nurseries, which can guarantee the authenticity of varieties and fruit quality standards and handling and planting trees should have a special care not to break the buds. Sour cherries and cherry that is sensitive to the phenomenon of soil fatigue and is not recommended to plant on the same land after it. Most varieties are self sterile cherry, but there are varieties intersterile or autofertile, the reason why the best choice of varieties that will be planted in an orchard is absolutely necessary documentation prior purchasing planting material.
At setting the distances for planting there should be considered the vigor of the rootstocks on which are grafted trees, the form of the designed crown, natural vigor and fertility of the soil varieties.
After picketing the land, planting pits are executed mechanically or manually with the dimensions of 40/40/40 cm. The direction of the rows is good to be NS because trees can receive more light. At the planting of every tree must be put 10-12 kg of fermented manure mixed with soil, or 50-60 g of chemical fertilizers with nitrogen and watering with 8-10 liters of water / tree planting in autumn is optional depending on the condition of soil moisture and obligatory in spring.
Also, for every tree that is grafted it is very important that the depth of planting trees to be the point of grafting at least 5-10 cm above ground level in order to print specific growth vigor rootstock used to avoid increasing of the roots of graft.
After the tree planting, the maintenance of the field is made in the first year after planting, by repeated disking to destroy weeds and loosen the soil surface. Under the rows of trees, a band of 1 to 1.4 m width , the soil is kept free of weeds by milling cutter with feeler worn tractor and ( or ) are applied herbicide when weeds are 15-20 cm.
Like other tree species , cherry can be irrigated efficient both by drop wise or micro pressure . Water distribution in each row of trees is done with the help of a hose with diameter of 18-20 mm, with drip flow rates of 4-8 l / h.
Source: National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Protection ( ICPA ) Bucharest.